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Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infections are easily transmitted between people through vaginal, anal, or oral sexual contact. The bacteria can infect the cervix, urethra, rectum, and/or less commonly known the throat or eyes. Ongoing research investigates the performance of the Colli-Pee® in the detection and screening of Gonorrhea.


Symptoms of Gonorrhea

Around 1 in 10 men, and around half of infected women do not experience any symptoms during their Gonorrhea infection. Symptoms for Gonorrhea can include thick, green or yellow discharge from the vagina (women) or penil (men).

Symptoms of Gonorrhea for men

  • Pain when urinating
  • Inflammation of foreskin
  • Unusual discharge from the tip of the penis
  • Pain in testicles

Symptoms of Gonorrhea for women

  • Pain when urinating
  • Bleeding in between periods or heavier periods
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Pain in the abdominal area


Prevention of Gonorrhea

Like most STIs, Gonorrhea can be prevented by using appropriate contraception such as a condom during sexual contact. A condom offers good protection against Gonorrhea, since the bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is present in vaginal or penile discharge.

Next to primary prevention, screening can increase STI detection rate and prevent further infection in asymptomatic cases. Screening is especially important for high-risk groups, including:

  • young sexually active people (<25years)
  • sex workers
  • MSM (men having sex with men) (1).

The Colli-Pee can significantly improve these types of screening programs.

  • Standarized and volumetric collection of first-void urine.
  • More reliable urine sampling for both female and male participants.
  • Easy to use first-void urine collector.
  • Suitable for home-based sampling which can reduce feelings of shame connected to STI testing and urine collection in the doctor’s office.


Detection of Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea can be detected by the examination of:

  • a swab specimen (from the cervix for women or from the urethra for men) taken by the clinician
  • self-collected vaginal swabs, or of voided urine

The urine sample for detection of Gonorrhea has to consist of first-void urine (the first part of the urine stream), as this part of the urine stream contains more DNA particles than other parts, making detection of Gonorrhea more sensitive.


Treatment of Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. The patient's partner - even if he/she is not infected with Gonorrhea - should be treated simultaneously (2).


Consequences of Gonorrhea

If left untreated, Gonorrhea can have serious complications for both men and women.

In women, Gonorrhea can spread to reproductive organs and cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). This occurs in 10-20% of cases that are left untreated. Regarding pregnancy, Gonorrhea infections can cause ectopic pregnancy and infertility (3).

In men, Gonorrhea can cause a painful infection in the testicles and prostate gland, which may lead to reduced fertility in a small number of cases.

In rare cases, if left untreated, it can spread through the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections (septicaemia) (4).


Novosanis' Research on Gonorrhea and the Colli-Pee device

During an evaluation of home based samples collected with Colli-Pee versus a clinic-based urine collection cup, 11 additional infections were found in home-based samples collected with Colli-Pee. 3 Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), 2 Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), 6 Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infections, compared to the clinic-collected samples. A total of three STIs (1 CT and 2 MG infections) were not detected in the home-based sample (5).


  1. Ann Fam Med, 2005. PMC1466867
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, website, 2016
  3. Schulz et al., Genitourin Med, 1987. PMID: 3679218
  4. NHS, website, 2016
  5. De Baetselier et al. BMJ Open 2019