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Prostate cancer

To successfully cure patients with prostate cancer it is important to detect the disease at an early stage. Current screening techniques are based on a measurement of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and a digital rectal examination (DRE). Drawbacks of PSA testing are its low sensitivity and specificity. Because of the ease of collection and the fact that prostate cells are directly released into the urethra through prostatic ducts after DRE or prostate massage, urine has become the future of non-invasive biomarker testing.

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